Question: What are the conditions for living among the Disbelievers?
Answer: Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic says in His Noble Book,
“Verily those whom the Angels take them (at death) while they were wronging themselves, they (the Angels) say, What situation where you all in? They (those people) say, We were weakened and oppressed in the land. They (the Angels) say, Wasn’t Allaah’s earth spacious so that you could migrate in it? So those people, their abode is Hell and an evil destination. Except the weak oppressed ones from the men, women and children who were not able to devise a plan, nor are they able to direct their way.” - [Sooratun-Nisaa (4):97-98]
So if the person is able to establish his religion (the Deen of Islaam) in that place and he can protect his children and his family, then there is no harm in that. However, I don’t think that he will not be able to protect his children, because he must take them to the schools of the Christians. If the child runs away from his father, the government will take him in and his father will have no authority over him, and the same applies to the woman (i.e. his wife). Therefore I think that it is not permissible to live in these lands (i.e. the lands of the disbelievers in the West) except for dire necessity, or for a person who goes there inviting to Allaah, glorified is He and Exalted is He (i.e. working in Da’wah).
Additionally he can protect himself from the Fitnah (trials, evil temptations), and the Fitnah of the women, and the Fitnah of the Dunyaa (worldly things). For indeed someone who went to Belgium informed me when he returned, and he is someone who people benefited from by way of knowledge. I said to him, “Why didn’t you stay with them (i.e. the Muslims in Belgium) so that they could benefit from you?” He said, “Fitnah (trials, evil temptations).” So I said, “Take your family (i.e. your wife) with you.” He said, “It is not only the Fitnah of the women, rather the Fitnah of the Dunyaa (worldly things) and many other Fitan as well.” So if the person fears for himself due to the Fitnah, then it is obligatory upon him to flee with his religion (i.e. to the Muslim lands).”
Source: Tuhfatul-Mujeeb’an As’ilatil-Haadhir wal-Ghareeb, question no. 26.