The Four Types of the Murj'iah
Question: What are the types of the Murj'iah? With the mention of their speech regarding issues of Eemaan?
Answer: The Murj'iah are of four types:
The First Type: Those who say that eemaan is only ma'rifah (having knowledge of Allaah), without having tasdeeq (belief in Allaah). And this is the speech of the Jahmiyyah. And this is the most evil and detestable of all speech. And this is kufr (disbelief) in Allaah ('Azza Wa Jall) because the mushrikeen (polytheists) of old, Fir'aun, Hamaan, Qaroon, and Iblees, all of them, had knowledge of Allaah and they all had eemaan in their hearts but they did not pronounce it upon their tongues nor did they act upon it with their limbs; this knowledge did not benefit them.
The Second Type: Those who say that eemaan is having tasdeeq (belief in Allaah) in the heart alone. And this is the speech of the Asha'irah. And this speech is also falsehood because the disbelievers also believe (in Allaah) in their hearts. And they know that the Qur'aan is true, and that the Messenger is true, and the Jews and the Christians have knowledge like this:
"Those to whom We gave the Scripture (Jews and Christians) recognise him (Muhammad or the Ka'bah at Makkah) as they recongise their sons." [Al-Baqarah : 146]
So they do believe in it in their hearts! And the Most High said about the polytheists:
"We know indeed the grief which their words cause you (O Muhammad): it is not you that they deny, but it is the Verses (the Qur'aan) of Allaah that the Dhaalimoon (polytheists and wrong-doers) deny." [33 : Al-An'am]
So these (people) did not pronounce it upon their tongues nor did they perform actions with their limbs that which they believe in their hearts, so they are not true believers.
The Third Group: The ones who are opposite (in ideology) to the Asha'irah, and they are the Karamiyyah, the ones who say that eemaan is pronounced upon the tongue but is not believed in their heart. And there is no doubt that this speech is falsehood because the munafiqoon (hypocrites), those who are in the lowest level of the hellfire, say, "We bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allaah and that Muhammad is His Messenger", upon their tongues but they do not believe this and they do not affirm this in their hearts. As the Most High said:
"When the hypocrites come to you (O Muhammad), they say: 'We bear witness that you are indeed the Messenger of Allaah.' Allaah knows that you are indeed His Messenger and Allaah bears witness that the hypocrites are liars indeed. They have made their oaths a screen (for their hypocrisy). Thus they hinder men) from the Path of Allaah. Verily, evil is what they used to do." [1-2 : Al-Munafiqun]
And He Said:
"...Saying with their mouths what was not in their hearts." [167 : Aali Imraan]
The Fourth Group: And they are the group with the least (level of) irjaa', those who say that eemaan is belief in the heart and speech upon the tongue but the action (of the limbs) does not enter into it. And this is the speech of the Murji'atul Fuqaha' and this speech is falsehood as well.
Source: As'ila wa Ajwibah fi Masaa'il al-Eemaan wal Kufr, No. 4
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