Signs of the People of Bid'ah & Some of Their Groups
Ibn Qudaamah al-Maqdisee says in his book Lum'ah al-I'tiqaad:
 And whoever attributes to himself or is characterized with other than Islaam and the Sunnah, then he is a person of bid'ah, such as the Raafidhah, the Jahmiyyah, the Khawaarij, the Qadariyyah, the Murjiah, the Mu'tazilah, the Karaamiyyah, the Kalaabiyyah and those similar to these. These are the misguided sects, the groups of bid'ah. May Allaah protect us from them.
Ibn Uthaymeen says in his explanation of this book, pg. 161:
Signs of the People of Bid'ah and Some of Their Groups
The People of Bid'ah have clear signs. From them are:
They describe themselves with other than Islaam and the Sunnah depending upon what bid'ahs they speak of whether in statement, action, or Aqeedah.
They stubbornly and arrogantly adhere to their opinions and they do not return to the truth even if it is clarified to them.
They hate the Imaams of Islaam and the religion.
Abandoning the People of Bid'ah is Waajib due to Allaah's statement: And from their groups, there are:
1. The Raafidhiyyah: They are those who go to extremes regarding the family of the Prophet (SallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) and they declare the other companions to be disbelievers and accuse them of evil and wicked things. They are various sects within themselves. From them are the extremists who claim that Alee is a god and others from them commit less than that.
Their bid'ah first appeared during the leadership of Alee ibn Abee Taalib when Abdullaah ibn Saba said to him, "You are god!" So Alee (RadhiyAllaahu anhu) ordered them to be burned so their leader, Abdullaah ibn Saba, fled.
Their Madhhab regarding the attributes of Allaah differs. Among them are those who make Tashbeeh*, those who make Ta'teel**, and those who are moderate. They are called Raafidhah (Rejecters) because they rejected Zayd ibn Alee ibn Al-Husayn ibn Alee ibn Abee Taalib when they asked him about Abu Bakr and Umar (RadhiyAllaahu anhumaa). So he made Duaa for them both for the mercy of Allaah. So they rejected him and abandoned him. They named themselves Shee'ah (Supporters) because they claim to uphold and support the family of the Prophet (SallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) and they call for their precedence and declare them to have more right to the leadership.
2. The Jahmiyyah: An ascription to Jahm ibn Safwaan who was killed by Saalim (or Salam) ibn Ahwaz in the Hijrah year 121. Their Madhhab regarding the attributes of Allaah is Ta'teel** and negation. With regards to predestination, they believe people are completely forced to do their action having no choice in the matter at all (Jabariyyah). Regarding Eemaan, they believe in Irjaa, meaning that Eemaan is solely the acknowledgement of the heart and that statements and actions are not part of Eemaan. So someone who commits a major sin, in their estimation, is a complete believer. So they are the People of Ta'teel, Jabariyyah, and Murjiah and they are many sects within themselves.
3. The Khawaarij: They are the ones who went out to kill Alee ibn Abee Taalib for the purpose of arbitration and ruling.
Their Madhhab is disassociation from Uthmaan and Alee and rebellion and revolution against the Imaam if he acts in contrary to the Sunnah in any matter. They also declare the one who commits a major sin to be a disbeliever who will reside forever in the Fire. They are also many different sects within themselves.
4. The Qadariyyah: They are the ones who negate predestination totally regarding the actions of the servant. They say that the servant has comeplete will and power over his own actions with no relationship between them and the will and power of Allaah. The first one to speak with this belief was Ma'bad Al-Juhnee in the last part of the era of the companions. He learnt this belief from a Majoosee (Fire-Worshipper) man in Basrah. The Qadariyyah are two sects, the extremists of them and those who have not gone to such an extreme. As for the extremists, they deny the knowledge of Allaah, His will, His power, and His creation of the actions of the servant. This type has almost become extinct. As for those who do not go to such an extreme, they believe that Allaah has knowledge of the actions of the servants. Yet, they deny that their actions happen by the will of Allaah, by His power, and by His creation. This is the belief that their Madhhab is known by.
5. The Murjiah: They are the ones who say that actions are not part of Eemaan and that Eemaan is solely acknowledgement of the heart. So the wicked sinner, in their estimation, is a believer with complete Eemaan no matter what he commits of sins or leaves of obedience. If we pass a ruling of disbelief regarding the one who leaves some of the Sharee'ah of the religion, then that is only due to the lack of acknowledgement in his heart, not for the actual leaving of the deed - this is the Madhhab of the Jahmiyyah and it is contrary to the Madhhab of the Khawaarij.
6. The Mu'tazilah: The followers of Waasil ibn 'Ataa who split off from Al-Hasan Al-Basree and held the belief that the wicked sinner is between two stations - not a believer and not a disbeliever, yet he is forever residing in the Fire. 'Amr ibn Ubayd followed him in that. Their Madhhab regarding the attributes of Allaah is one of Tateel** like the Jahmiyyah, and regarding predestination, they believe like the Qadariyyah, denying any relationship between the decree of Allaah and His power over the actions of the servant. As for the one who commits a major sin, they hold him to be forever abiding in the Fire, outside Eemaan in a station between Eemaan and disbelief. They are opposite to the Jahmiyyah in these two principles.
7. The Karaamiyyah: The followers of Muhammad ibn Karaam who died in the Hijrah year of 255. they lean towards Tashbeeh* and they speak with the belief of the Murjiah. There are a number of sects within them.
8. The Saalimah: The followers of a man whose name is said to be Ibn Saalim. They hold the belief of Tashbeeh*.
These are the groups that the author (Ibn Qudaamah) mentioned and then he said, "And those similar to these," like the Ash'ariyyah: the followers of Hasan Alee ibn Ismaaeel Al-Ash'aree. At first, he used to lean towards the belief of the Mu'tazilah until he turned 40. He then announced his repentance from that and he clarified the falsehood of the Madhhab of the Mu'tazilah and he adhered to the Madhhab of Ahlus-Sunnah (Rahimahullaah). As for those who ascribe themselves to him, they remained on a specific Madhhab known as the Madhhab of the Ash'ariyyah. They do not confirm except 7 of the attributes of Allaah claiming that the intellect indicates this. They misinterpret and distort all other attributes besides these 7 which are the attributes of: Life, Knowledge, Capability, Speech, Will, Hearing, and Seeing.
They have other bid'ahs regarding the Speech of Allaah and his Capability and other that these.
* Ibn Uthaymeen explains Tashbeeh in the same book, pg. 34 as: Confirming a similarity between Allaah and something else in what He alone should be characterized with of His rights or attributes. It is disbelief because it is Shirk with Allaah and it includes a deficiency in the rights of Allaah when He is declared to be similar to the deficient creation. ** Ibn Uthaymeen explains Ta'teel in his Sharh of Al-Aqeedah Al-Waasitiyyah, pg. 72 as: Denying what Allaah has confirmed for Himself of names and attributes, whether by totally denying them or some of them. It is the same whether this denial is by distorting the meanings or outright denial. All of this is called Ta'teel.
Source: Sharh Lum'ah al-I'tiqaad of Imaam Ibn Qudaamah al-Maqdisee
Translator: Abuz-Zubayr 'Abdur-Rahmaan (Scott) Harrison - Rahimahullaah
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